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Lund Performance Solutions


The REDWOOD Tool
REDWOOD is a logfile analyzer that specializes in looking at file-close records from MPE XL, MPE V, and MPE IV logfiles.

Operation

Optimizing disk I/O performance can be a costly and time consuming job. REDWOOD can make this process easier by identifying the most frequently accessed files on the system. Thus, when you do choose to optimize your system, you can be sure that your time is being spent productively. System optimization can yield a significant decrease in execution time. Determining which files to optimize to achieve these kinds of results is a matter of analyzing the frequency of logical access, physical access, and the number of times a file is opened. This is the type of information that REDWOOD provides.
REDWOOD makes a compressed copy of the data in the system log file(s) and places it into a user-defined summary file. REDWOOD uses this summary file to create the reports you design.
As you use REDWOOD, you will notice that REDWOOD frequently displays a "(CR = <value>)" at user prompts. This is REDWOOD’s way of showing default choices. Press "CR" (Enter) to select the default.
REDWOOD analyzes both MPE V log files and MPE/iX log files. Before using REDWOOD, you will need to make sure that FCLOSE logging is enabled so that REDWOOD has something to which to report. Use the SYSGEN utility to determine and modify (if necessary) your system’s configuration to include fclose logging.
Refer to the System Startup and Shutdown manual for details on modifying system log files. Or, use the instruction sequence that follows.

Getting Started

The following instruction explain how to enable FCLOSE logging on an MPE/iX machine. Classic system log files are defined as TYPE 160. Native Mode log files are defined as TYPE 105.
  • Logon as MANAGER.SYS
  • Type :sysgen to invoke the SYSGEN program. You should see something similar to the following display:


  • Figure 14.1 SYSGEN Program Screen
  • Next, type log at the sysgen> prompt to display the following configuration commands.


  • Figure 14.2 LOG Configuration Commands
  • Type sl on=160,105 at the log> prompt.
  • Next, type hold at the log> prompt.
  • Then, type exit at the log> prompt. This returns you to the :SYSGEN prompt.
  • Type keep at the :SYSGEN prompt.
  • Answer yes to the Purge old configuration (yes/no): prompt.
  • Finally, type exit to terminate the program.
  • Overview

    Disc I/O on the PA-RISC HP3000 is affected by few factors under the direct control of the programmer. These factors include: the amount of memory on the machine, the number of users competing for memory, and the transaction manager. Factors under the control of the programmer include: file locality (random or sequential access), FCONTROLs to post dirty pages, and the sequential write queue.
    Disc I/O on the Classic HP3000 is affected by many things: blocking factors, the number of buffers available, the type of file (variable or fixed), the spread of the disc files across the available devices, the type of calls made against the file as well as the sequence of those calls and their frequency.
    For an individual file, all of these considerations must be taken into account when we attempt to optimize our system. As well, we must consider the use of each file as it pertains to the application and if it is a structured file, we must analyze our selection of keys and file relationships.
    The benefits involved in handling these tradeoffs correctly are many, as are the costs involved with incorrect file choices.
    Consider an example on the Classic HP3000, a file which will be accessed sequentially. The blocking factor determines how many physical I/O's are necessary to process a given number of logical records. If a file contains 10,000 logical records which must be sequentially read by a program then the formula for the number of physical reads necessary is as follows:
    physical'reads = [ logical'records / blocking'factor ]
    where the expression [ ] is rounded up to the nearest integer.
    Thus, in our ten thousand record file, a blocking factor of two results in 10000/2, or 5,000 physical reads against the file. A blocking factor of twenty results in 10000/20, or 500 reads and an improvement factor of ten in the number of physical transfers necessary. Logical record accesses cost in terms of cpu as well as the amount of memory required during the transfer. Physical accesses cost in terms of several additional resources - the disc movement required, the controller time, channel time, etc. Assuming our application does require the logical accesses, we can not reduce them (although NOBUF may reduce their impact).
    However, by varying the blocking factor, we can reduce the number of physical accesses required (at a cost of increasing the amount of memory our buffers are using). The end result of this change can be significant. One test showed that altering a blocking factor from two to twenty, resulted in a thirty percent decrease in the execution time of a sequential-read application. Similar optimizations are possible by varying some of the other file characteristics or by rewriting portions of the file handling applications.
    The above is an excellent example of the difference between MPE XL on the PA-RISC HP3000 and MPE V on the Classic HP3000. Changing the block factor on MPE XL usually results in no performance differences at all. (For a few files, it can still improve the performance, but this is for relatively rare kinds of files (i.e.: RIO).)
    Such optimizations can provide significant improvements in the performance of a system. However, each such optimization has an implicit cost associated with it. It may be simply the time the programmer must take to redo the file equations or :BUILD commands of a batch job. On the other hand, the optimization may involve extensive recoding effort as well as testing. Most optimizations involve exploiting relatively harmless tradeoffs. In the case of the blocking factor change mentioned above, the decrease in the number of physical I/O's more than compensated for the additional burden the larger buffers placed on memory. This is not always the situation though, and each modification must be tested to determine if it does indeed improve or degrade performance.
    Since these file optimizations have costs associated with them, we would like to pay the cost only when we are sure of a chance of a reasonable return on our investment. There is a theory of programming which says that eighty percent of the time a program is executing it is in twenty percent of the code. This 80/20 rule can also be applied to files, or "eighty percent of all file activity is against twenty percent of the files". To receive a maximum return on our optimization investment, we should obviously focus our attention on this "top twenty" percent, and the topic which REDWOOD addresses is the identification of that twenty percent.

    Method

    This top 20 might also be referred to as the "busy" or "heavily used" files on the system. Before we can identify the top 20, we must establish our criteria for deciding which files are busier than others. Three criteria come immediately to mind when we speak of heavy file usage:
  • the number of logical accesses to the file,
  • the number of physical accesses, and
  • the number of times a file is opened.
  • This information (with a few exceptions noted later) is available to us through the type 5 record recorded by MPE V in its log files and in the type 105 records recorded by MPE XL.
    The format of the type 5 (FCLOSE) record is given on pages 6-123 and 6-124 of the old SYSTEM MANAGER/SYSTEM SUPERVISOR Reference Manual. The information which will be of interest to us includes:
  • file name
  • logical device # of file label & first extent
  • number of records processed
  • number of blocks processed
  • where:
    file name
    The fully qualified formal designator associated with the file, fname.group.account; some program temporary files may have a blank name.
    logical device
    The logical device number of the file label. This ldev may not contain the entire file since only a single extent need reside entirely on one device.
    number of records
    The number of logical records which have been read or written since the file was opened, this value gives us a measure of the application's activity.
    number of blocks
    The number of blocks which have been transferred to/from the file. This value is a measure of the physical I/O against the file in all instances except the following two cases:
  • a rewind (FCONTROL (5)) against a variable record file resets this value to zero;
  • for files which are accessed with MULTI-REC (bit 11 of AOPTIONS or MR in file eq.) and where the block size is equal to an integer multiple of 128 words. In this case the value is the number of blocks processed (which will probably be greater than the number of physical I/O's).
  • MPE XL's type 105 record has similar information within it. The layout, however, does not appear to be documented in any publicly accessible manuals. In the process of writing REDWOOD, we located and were able to determine its contents.

    NOTE REDWOOD can read logfiles from MPE XL, MPE V, and MPE IV,
    automatically.

    The information contained in these log records is synthesized into one of several reports which help users determine what their busy files are. The specific algorithm used will be covered later, but briefly our method is to gather all of the type 5 (& 105) records for each unique file on the system, and total the number of records processed, the number of blocks processed as well as the count of type 5 (& 105) records encountered.
    This gives us a measure of:
  • the application activity - number of records processed,
  • the physical I/O - number of blocks processed (refer to note above)
  • the number of FOPEN's - type 5 and type 105 record count.
  • the average and maximum size of each file (XL only)
  • Each of these measures gives us a slightly different measure of the relative use of the files, so our method allows us to choose the top twenty percent of the files judged to be busiest on any of these values. For that matter, we may choose any percentage from one to one hundred. Once these busy files have been identified, we can begin to optimize these files knowing that any improvements we make will have the maximum effect on the overall system performance.

    Advantages / Disadvantages

    There are several other methods which could have been used in an attempt to determine which files are our busiest. These include direct monitoring of the I/O on the system, embedded measuring tools and alternative reporting schemes using log records. The method used here has the following advantages:
  • The MPE logging facility is universal across the 3000 product line and does not require a specific machine or MPE level (true, the logfile format changed from MPE IV to MPE V to MPE XL, but REDWOOD understands all three formats)
  • No special programming or capabilities are required (REDWOOD does not need PM capability)
  • Since the method analyzes log files which have been closed, it may be run during "off hours" or on a separate machine, thus there is no effect on the system caused by the tool itself (other than the negligible overhead of enabling logging itself). REDWOOD can be used on an MPE XL machine to analyze logfiles :RESTOREd from a Classic machine.
  • We have several distinct measures of usage: logical & "physical" I/O counts, file size (XL only), and file-open counts
  • This method is not restricted to a particular file type or structure, although its usefulness may not be as great with some
  • The only necessary modification to the system configuration is that logging be enabled for FCLOSE's (type 5 or 105)
  • The disadvantages to this approach are as follows:
  • On MPE XL, we cannot determine the number of physical I/Os that occurred. MPE XL will "post" (write to disc) pages of files at its leisure. Thus, a dozen FWRITEs to the same record may result in anywhere from 0 to 12 disc writes.
  • On MPE XL, any "mapped access" to a file is not reflected in the file close record. Thus, access by TurboImage is not seen (except for the file close record itself).
  • On MPE V, although it does give you physical I/O, these figures are not related to any figure such as specific IMAGE calls, etc.
  • This tool works well for summary reporting of disc activity, however, in some cases the real concern may center on "burst" I/O activity; i.e., the total number of I/O's spread across the day is small, but within 2 seconds after ENTER is hit, the activity is concentrated.
  • There is no mechanism for determining the I/O rate for a period of time.
  • These records can not be used to summarize disc activity per device since the LDEV is only for the first extent; not all extents of a file are required to reside on a single device.
  • The number of blocks processed does not equal the number of physical I/O's if one of two cases is true:
  • a rewind on a variable record file sets the number to zero
  • files opened with multi-rec which also have blocks which end on a sector boundary may access multiple blocks in a single I/O, the number is higher than the actual number of physical I/O's
  • On MPE XL, type 105 records do not contain a "blocks transferred" count, so REDWOOD synthesizes a value by assuming a blocking factor of 1.
  • On MPE XL, type 105 records contain the number of logical reads and the number of logical writes. On MPE V, type 5 records contain only the sum of these two values. REDWOOD does not yet have the ability to separate the read count and write count. Instead, it always adds them together.
  • Capabilities

    Program capabilities required include IA, BA, DS and PH. No special user capabilities are required.

    Usage

    Invoke REDWOOD using the supplied UDC or with the RUN command detailed below.
  • UDC
  • :REDWOOD [parm=#]
  • RUN
  • :RUN REDWOOD.PUB.LPSTOOLS;PARM=#
    parm=# is used to change the max default number of records that REDWOOD can process in a single summary log file. The number entered for parm is multiplied by 1000 to obtain the new max default value (DEFAULT: 40000). For example:
    REDWOOD 90
    Or:
    RUN REDWOOD.PUB.LPSTOOLS;PARM=90
    (Sets default to 90,000 records)

    Command Summary

    REDWOOD has several commands which when executed in a particular sequence will produce a summary file which can then be re-sorted and listed for several different reports. The commands are listed in the next table.

    NOTE Portions of the command codes are printed in uppercase to denote the part of the command that ACAP requires in order to distinguish one command from another. However, the commands themselves are not case-sensitive.


    Table 14.1 REDWOOD Commands
    Command Code
    Description
    CReate
    Creates a "summary log" file
    EXClude
    Sets/resets exclusion options
    Exit
    Terminates REDWOOD
    HELP
    Gets full help information
    List
    Sorts and reports a "summary log" file
    LP
    Directs LIST output to a printer
    RESET
    Resets various options
    SET
    Sets various options
    TERMinal
    Directs LIST output to terminal
    //
    Terminates REDWOOD (synonym of Exit)
    ?
    Gets help information (subset of HELP)

    Command Definitions

    Depending on which commands you use, REDWOOD produces a summary file which can be re- sorted and listed for several different reports. REDWOOD commands include primary functions, options, exit procedures and Help. These are discussed in detail next.

    CReate

    CREATE produces a summary file of the FCLOSE records from one or more log files. The log file (s) used are read sequentially and all type 5 and 105 (FCLOSE) records for disc files (subtype 0) are extracted. These records are then sorted by the file formal designator (file.group.account) to group all records for the same file. EDITOR work files of the form Knnnnnnn, where nnnnnnn is a valid seven-digit number, are transformed to have file names of the form, K#######, to group all k-files for each group/account into one record. (This is controlled by the [RE]SET EDITOR command.) Similarly, FSEDIT work files (whose names are of the form F#######) are gathered together under the control of the [RE]SET FSEDIT command.
    This temporary sort file is then read sequentially and a summary file is built containing one record for each unique formal designator. This record contains information including: the device number (or pseudo-LDEV for MPE XL), total number of records processed, total number of blocks processed, FCLOSE count and an indicator for whether the device number was the same for all FCLOSE's. If this indicator is set to TRUE, then at there was at least one record which contained a logical device different from the other records for that file. This indicates that the file has moved, possibly due to a purge and re-create.
    Since the log files may have been stored from the test system and restored to an account or group other than PUB.SYS, the CREATE command allows the user to override the default group and account (PUB.SYS) for the log file(s) to be analyzed. Once the group and account has been established, the four digit number of the first log file is entered and then the four digit number of the ending log file is entered if different from the first. Once these numbers are in, REDWOOD requests the name of a summary file which it will attempt to create to hold the summary records for each FCLOSE'd file.
    After the log file range has been specified, REDWOOD reads through each log file whose number is in the desired range and extracts all the file close records, storing them in the summary file.

    NOTE In an effort to let you know that REDWOOD is alive and well, it will print a dot (.) every 1000 records read from a log file. Additionally, it will print an asterisk (*) for every 1000 file close records found.

    EXCLude

    This command has the following syntax:
    EXCLUDE [ZERO] [NONE] [PERM] [DEFault] [LDEV #] [SMALL #blocks]
    [NONZERO] [BIGsectors #]
    REDWOOD has the ability to "exclude" records from being considered based on a variety of criteria. The exclusion is checked as each record is read from a log file.

    BIGsectors #
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude any file-close records for files larger than the specified number of sectors.
    DEFault
    This is equivalent to entering the following commands:
    REDWOOD: SET EDITOR FSEDIT NOGMULTI
    MERGEDOMAINS ARITRAP
    REDWOOD: RESET SORTSCR
    REDWOOD: EXCLUDE ZERO SMALL=0 BIGSEC=0 (resets EXCLUDE PERM NONZERO)
    LDEV #
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude any file-close records that were for files whose file label was on the specified ldev. If you want to exclude more than one LDEV, you can do so with multiple EXCLUDE LDEV commands.
    NONE
    Instructs REDWOOD to not exclude ANY records from the summary file.
    NONZERO
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude all file-close records that had more than zero (0) blocks transferred. This provides a way of seeing only those files that were opened and not used.
    PERM
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude all file-close records that refer to permanent disc files.
    SMALL #blocks
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude any file-close records for files with less blocks transferred than the specified number.
    ZERO
    Instructs REDWOOD to exclude all file-close records that said zero (0) blocks were transferred.

    Exit

    The EXIT command closes all open files and ends the program execution.
    A :EOD entered at any prompt will also terminate REDWOOD.

    List

    The LIST command will sort and report on the records found in a summary file, whose name can be directly entered or a return can be used to indicate that the same summary file will be used again. The file is sorted in one of eight or nine different manners. When this sorted file is then listed and totalled, the files are in an order such that the "busiest" files are listed first. The user can choose to list just the busiest ten percent of the system's files. If the sort key chosen stays the same between two LISTings of the same summary file, then the sort is not executed to save time.
    The possible sort options available are:
  • RECORDS processed
  • BLOCKS processed (only for MPE V & IV logfiles)
  • FCLOSE count
  • REC/BLK ratio
  • REC/BLK ratio (exclude probable NOBUF)
  • File Name (A.G.F)
  • File Name (F.G.A)
  • Average Size
  • Maximum Size
  • The LIST command produces a report with a header like the following:


    Figure 14.3 LIST Command Report Header
    Each of these fields is described below.
    Table 14.2 Header Fields
    Field
    Description
    File.Group.Account
    This field is the name of the file, as found in the file close log record. If the "File" field is "nameless", then this indicates that a nameless file was seen. Such files are used as scratch files by programs.
    A file name of K####### means that one (or more) EDITOR/3000 workfiles were seen for the group.account shown. Files beginning with a K and having 7 trailing digits in their name are lumped together if a SET EDITOR has been seen (default).
    A file name of F####### means that one (or more) FSEDIT workfiles were seen for the group.account shown. Files beginning with a F and having 7 trailing digits in their name are lumped together if a SET FSEDIT has been seen (default).
    Ldn
    The LDN column reports the approximate ldev that for each file. Note that the actual ldev is not given. Instead, the volume-set index is shown. (This is because MPE XL puts the index, and not the ldev, into the file close record.) For discs that belong to the system volume set (i.e.: MPEXL_SYSTEM_VOLUME_SET), the indices usually correspond exactly with the ldevs. The CI command :DSTAT ALL will report a list of ldevs and what volumes are mounted on them.
    # Records
    The # Records column reports how many records were read/written via the file system for each file. Any access to a file via mapped access will not be reflected in this number.
    # Fcloses
    The #Fcloses column reports how many file-close records were seen for each file.
    %
    Cum
    The %Cum column reports the cumulative percent that each line represents. If a summary file was sorted by RECORDS processed, and the first two lines had %Cum columns values of 15 and 20, then this means that the 15% of all records processed (for ALL files) were processed for the first file. And, of all the records processed, 5% were for the second file. Since 15 + 5 = 20, the %Cum column for the second file shows 20. If a cutoff percentage is entered (other than 100), then the listing stops after it gets to a line where the %Cum value matches (or exceeds) the cutoff value.
    JS, J/S
    J
    S
    The J/S column reports whether the file was used from jobs (J), sessions (S), both (" "), or only by system processes (?).
    R/B
    The R/B column reports the block factor for a file.
    Maximum
    Sectors
    The Maximum Sectors column reports how large was the largest version of each file.
    Average
    Sectors
    The Average Sectors column reports the average size of each file version for each file. This column holds a non-blank entry only when the average sectors is different from the maximum sectors.
    Some columns in the LIST output have special characters to indicate various things. This section documents each of these characters.

    *
    An asterisk (*) after the Ldn column indicates that more than one ldev was seen for a file. This means that the file "moved" (or was purged and rebuilt) at least once during the period covered by the logfiles.
    J
    A J in the J/S column indicates that a file was used only by batch jobs.
    S
    A S in the J/S column indicates that a file was used only by interactive sessions.
    Blank space
    A blank space in the J/S column indicates that a file was used by jobs and sessions.
    ?
    A question mark (?) in the J/S column indicates that a file was used by system processes, and not by jobs or sessions.

    LP

    The LP command opens a file with the formal name LPSLP, which defaults device=LP. All reports are sent to this file until the TERM or EXIT commands are used. A file equation may be used to redirect this file.
    If a hard-copy is desired at the same time as an on-line report, the Toolbox standard command: SET COPYLP may be used instead of the LP command.

    SCAN

    The SCAN command acts like the CREATE command, except that no summary file is created. It is useful for scanning over log files for I/O errors.

    SET | REset

    These commands have the following syntax:
    SET/RESET <option> [ , <option> ...]
    <option>::=
    ARItrap
    CPU
    mergeDOMains
    EDITor
    FIRSTHour = #
    FSEDIT
    GMulti
    LASTHour = #
    LOGERRors
    NONZERO
    TEMPONLY
    ZERO

    ARItrap
    SET ARITRAP tells REDWOOD to pay attention to any internal arithmetic faults that might occur.
    RESET ARITRAP tells REDWOOD to ignore faults.
    CPU
    SET CPU tells REDWOOD to report its CPU usage at the end of handling a command.
    mergeDOMains
    SET mergeDOMains tells REDWOOD to treat old and new files with the same name as the same file.
    RESET MERGEDOMAINS tells REDWOOD to group all old files separately from all new files.
    EDITor
    SET EDITor tells REDWOOD to merge all EDIT/3000 temporary files (K#######) into one file.
    FIRSTHour = #
    SET FIRSTHour = # tells REDWOOD to ignore any file-close records that occurred before the specified hour of the day. The hour value must be in the range 0..23.
    FSEDIT
    SET FSEDIT tells REDWOOD to merge all FSEDIT temporary files into one file.
    GMulti
    SET GMulti tells REDWOOD to attempt to compensate for the MPE bug in reporting the number of blocks transferred for files that were opened with GMULTI (i.e.: message files). When compensation occurs, it is flagged as such in the summary report.
    RESET GMULTI disables the compensation.
    LASTHour = #
    SET LASTHour = # tells REDWOOD to ignore any file-close records that occurred after the specified hour of the day. The hour value must be in the range 0..23.
    LOGERRors
    SET LOGERRors tells REDWOOD that you want to see I/O errors that were in the logfile.
    RESET LOGERRORS tells REDWOOD to not report I/O errors.
    NONZERO
    SET NONZERO is a synonym for EXCLUDE NONZERO.
    RESET NONZERO disables excluding non-zero file-close records.
    TEMPONLY
    SET TEMPONLY tells REDWOOD that you want to exclude file-close records for permanent disc files. SET TEMPONLY is a synonym for EXCLUDE PERM.
    RESET TEMPONLY disables the exclusion.
    ZERO
    SET ZERO is a synonym for EXCLUDE ZERO.
    RESET ZERO disables excluding zero-block file-close records.

    SORTSCR

    The SORTSCR command causes REDWOOD to scan selected logfiles looking for file-close records for SORTSCR files. SORTSCR is the name of the scratch file used by the SORT subsystem. Unlike the CREATE command, the SORTSCR command does not build a summary file.

    TERMinal

    The TERM command closes the previous LPSLP file and directs the output from subsequent LIST commands to $STDLIST. This is the default case when the program is first run.

    // and /

    At most prompts, entering a single slash (/) will "bail out" of that question and return you to the outer command prompt. At any prompt, a "//" will act like the EXIT command.

    TOOLBOX STANDARDS

    The ToolBox collections from Lund Performance Solutions have a uniform user interface. As a result, in addition to the commands specific to each Toolbox tool, most tools allow the commands described in "TOOLBOX STANDARDS".

    REDWOOD Examples

    The following example steps you through a typical REDWOOD session. The Max sort records at the time REDWOOD was invoked was 40,000.


    Figure 14.4 Invoking a REDWOOD Session
    The first step almost always involves creating the Summary Log. This is demonstrated in the next figure.


    Figure 14.5 Creating a Summary Log
    Once the Summary Log is created you may specify reporting options. For this Summary Log (named TESTLOG by the user), there are 148 files closing actions that can be analyzed.


    Figure 14.6 Summary Log Report
    Using the LIST command to display record information, you can get basic count information. Additionally, REDWOOD displays a list of sort options you can use to create a report.


    Figure 14.7 LIST Command
    The following output reports on 55% of the pool of records, from the largest on down. Sort options specified were the range 1 through 3 and option 9.


    Figure 14.8 Output Report

    REDWOOD Error Messages

    Each REDWOOD error message is described in the following table.
    Table 14.3 REDWOOD Error Messages
    Message
    Cause
    Action
    Illegal file name
    An illegal file descriptor was entered.
    Review HP documentation concerning valid filenames.
    Illegal file title:
    An invalid filename was given.
    Review HP’s documentation about file name descriptions.
    Oops ... log files MUST be called LOG####[.group[.acct]]
    Log files can be moved into groups other than PUB.SYS.
    Log files names should not be altered; rename to original name given by MPE XL.
    Sorry, that is a damage summary file ... you should probably purge it.
    The summary file is damaged and cannot be used.
    Use REDWOOD to reconstruct the summary file from individual log files.
    That file has an improper file code.
    REDWOOD summary files use a file code of 1001.
    Use LISTF to locate summary files.
    Unknown SET/RESET option:
    An unknown REDWOOD set/reset option was given.
    Valid choices for REDWOOD’s set/reset options are: ARITRAP, CPU, MERGEDOMAINS, EDITOR, FIRSTHOUR, FSEDIT, GMULTI, LASTHOUR, LOGERRORS, NONZERO, TEMPONLY, ZERO.

    Lund Performance Solutions
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