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Lund Performance Solutions


The BLAZE Tool
BLAZE is a file management tool that uses a terminal-based windowing technology, WINGSPAN. BLAZE supports a very powerful fileset specification syntax which simplifies file management operations like copying and purging. As you become comfortable with BLAZE, you will want to explore advanced topics like file tagging, mass operations, and file subset management.

Operation

BLAZE is easier to use if you take a few minutes to become familiar with the windows, fileset specification syntax, single letter comma keys, and function key operations. You may have covered some of these topics in the appendices. Basic operations like cursor key support and function key descriptions are also explained in the appendices.
BLAZE Typeahead status is set by the “terminal” option in the Settings pull-down menu. With Typeahead enabled, BLAZE single letter command keys require only a single keystroke. With Typeahead disabled, BLAZE single-letter command keys require two keystrokes for the key to be executed. Single-letter commands are discussed in detail later. By default, BLAZE Typeahead is disabled.

Capabilities

Program capabilities required include IA, DS, and PH. No special user capabilities are required to run BLAZE.

BLAZE Screen Layout

The basic BLAZE window contains four sections of interest: the status line, work area, single- letter command keys and function keys.
The status line is located at the top of the screen on row 1. Operational status messages are displayed here. The row beneath the status line, row 2, is where the menu bar is located. The menu bar is used to make top-level choices.
The work area is the area in the middle of the screen between the status line and the function keys. Depending on your application you may have up to five windows on the screen.
The single-letter command keys are used to perform operations like file tagging and fileset copying. The object of a single-letter command’s operation is determined by which window is active. For example, if the Account Structure window option is active and you issue a TAG (T) command, then all the files associated with the line you are on will be tagged. However, if the File Content window is active when the TAG command is issued, then only the file that is currently selected will be tagged.
The function keys are located at the bottom of the screen. There are eight function keys. Some keys have a standard use assigned to them, while other keys are assigned functionality that is specific to a given operation on an as-needed basis.
The next two pages introduce you to several of the more commonly used screens in BLAZE. The major focus for the next two pages is on understanding what components can be identified on each screen. Information on each component is discussed in later sections.

BLAZE Menu Structure

Following is a detailed discussion of the various menu screens found in the BLAZE tool program.

The Main Menu

This screen lays out the basic structure of the BLAZE screen.

NOTE The status line (row 1); the shaded menu bar (row 2); and the function key locations. The menu bar selections that end in 2 dots (..) indicate that they have associated pull-down menus.



Figure 5.1 Main Menu

The Display Menu

The Display menu is the gateway to BALZE’s file management windows (Tree and View). Additionally, BLAZE’s File Compare (Compare) and Status Report (Profile) windows are accessible through the Display menu.



Figure 5.2 Display Menu

The Settings Menu

The Settings menu is for user-customizing of the interface as well as fileset specification. Items configured in this section can be saved to a configuration file. The default configuration filename is BLAZECFG, which (if present in the logon group) is loaded automatically. BLAZECFG can be equated to another file.



Figure 5.3 Settings Menu

MPE Commands/Exit Program Options

These two menu bar selections have no associated pull-down menus. The MPE Commands selection displays a small pop-up window where MPE commands or UDCs may be entered.
The Exit selection terminates BLAZE execution.



Figure 5.4 MPE Commands/Exit

Display Selection Menu

The following screens are accessed through the Display menu.
The Tree Screen
The information on this screen is divided into two panels. The left half of the screen displays account and group information. The right half of the screen displays file lists in a format similar to that of LISTF. File management actions are achieved through several single-letter command keys and the function keys.



Figure 5.5 Tree Screen
The View Screen
This screen is divided into three information regions. The window to the left displays account and group information. The middle window displays a filename list. The window to the right displays file contents. As with the Tree display, file management is handled through single-letter command keys and function key selections.



Figure 5.6 View Screen
The Compare Screen
This screen displays two windows for viewing the contents of two different files. The function keys provide control over which window is active and in the format of the display. The windows may be scrolled separately or together. ASCII and hexadecimal display formats are available.



Figure 5.7 Compare Screen
The Profile Screen
This screen is divided into three windows. The information provided here includes system information, fileset statistics, and fileset specifications. System information provides information about the environment in which BLAZE operates. Fileset statistics show user-defined filesets. The fileset specifications window displays the current fileset.



Figure 5.8 Profile Screen

Fileset Specification

BLAZE supports a LISTF-style file specification syntax with powerful extensions for creating versatile file descriptions. Filesets can be added or subtracted, and particular characteristics can be used to qualify each fileset.


Figure 5.9 Fileset Specification Diagram

BLAZE Parameters

One of the most powerful features of BLAZE is its fileset specification syntax. The syntax diagram in Figure 5.9 outlines all valid fileset descriptions. The syntax that BLAZE supports is based on the MPE LISTF fileset description. Wildcards are supported and multiple fileset descriptions can be logically connected with the puls (+) and minus (-) operators.
There are several possible options for reducing a large fileset into a more specific fileset. This is accomplished using the filter descriptor. At this time, there are 21 different filters that can be applied to any fileset.
The syntax for applying filters is:
<fileset>,<filter>
When multiple filters are applied to the same fileset, the effect is that of a logical "and"
@,code=nmprg+@,code=prog
In English, this reads: "For all files in this group select the files with the filecode nmprg and files with the filecode prog."

DATE Filter Definitions

There are three different types of date filters: ACCDATE, CREDATE, and MODDATE. Dates can be specified in two different formats, "yymmdd" and "yy/mm/dd". Also the literal "TODAY" can be used to specify the current date. The relational operators equal (=), less than (<), greater than (>), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (< >) can be used to create the exact date filter that is required.
ACCDATE
This definition represents "Access Date". It reports the time that this file was last accessed. For example, list all native mode programs that were used today:
@.@.@,code=nmprg,accdate=today
This example also uses the filter code.
CREDATE
This definition represents "Creation Date". It is the date that a file was created. For example, list all files in this account created after January 15, 1994:
@.@,credate>940115
MODDATE
This definition represents "Modification Date". It is the date of the last modification that was made to a file. For example, list all files that were modified today:
@.@.@,moddate=today

NUMERIC Filter Definitions

The filters in the next section accept numeric data as input. The relationship between the filter and numeric data is defined by the relational operator you select. A range can be defined by using the same filter twice, once with an upper limit and again with a lower limit.
BF
This definition represents Blocking Factor. Use this filter to specify a blocking factor size. For example, list all files in this account that have a blocking factor of 16:
@.@,bf=16
CODE
This definition represents "Filecode". It is the MPE file subsystem filecode. The MPE file subsystem assigns filecodes to all disk files. The filecode is a 16-bit signed number. Negative numbers indicate privileged filecodes.
Many filecodes have predefined meanings. For example, the filecode number 1029 is defined (by MPE) to be used for compatibility mode (CM) program files. System-defined filecodes usually have associated mnemonics. In the case of a CM program, MPE displays the 4-character mnemonic "PROG" when the filecode number is 1029. There are dozens of predefined filecodes. Consult the MPE Commands Reference Manual for a complete listing. In addition to system- defined filecodes, there are many others that are commonly used. For example, filecode number 711 indicates a "squished" file, meaning that the file has been compressed via the popular Boeing Computer Services’ file compression utility called SQUISHER. Filecode number 111 indicates a QEDIT (a product of Robelle Consulting, Ltd) text file.
When specifying a filecode for the CODE filter, either the numeric value can be used or the mnemonic string. For example, list all files in this group with the filecode equal to 1029:
@,code=1029
This is equivalent to "@,code=prog"
List all of the native mode executable libraries on the system:
@.@.@,code=nmxl
EOF
This definition represents End Of File location. this filter lets you specify the size of files to select by specifying an EOF size. For example, list all files in this account that have an EOF equal to 0, and a sector count > 0:
@.@,eof=0,sectors>0
LABELS
This definition represents "User Labels". This filter lets you limit file selection to just those files having the specified number of user labels. For example, list all files in this account that have user labels:
@.@,labels>0
LIMIT
This definition represents "File Size Limit". It is the maximum number or records allowed in the file. For example, list all files in the current group except native mode program files, that have a record limit greater than 10000:
@,limit>10000,code<>nmprg
REC
This definition represents the record size of a file. Use this filter to select files based on record size. For example, list all files in the current group that have a record size equal to 80 bytes:
@,rec=80
SECTORS
This definition represents the sector size of the file. Use this filter to specify the size of files for selection. Use two SECTORS filters to specify a range. For example, list all files in the current group that have more than 1000 sectors allocated to them:
@,sectors>1000
List all files in the current group that have more than 1000 sectors but less than 3000 sectors allocated to them:
@,sectors>1000,sectors<3000
TEMP
This definition represents TEMP files only. Use this filter to specify temporary files only. For example, list all temp files in the current account:
@.@,temp

NON-PARAMETER Filter Definitions

The following filters have no parameters; you simply include the filter name to select this filter.
ASCII
This definition represents ASCII files only. Limit file selection to ASCII files only. For example, list all ASCII files in this account that are empty.
@.@,ascii,eof=0
BINARY
This definition represents Binary files only. Limit file selection to binary files only. For example, list all binary files in this account that are not program files:
@.@,binary,code<>nmprg,code<>prog
FIXED
This definition represents Fixed record length files only. Limit file selection to fixed record length files. For example, list all fixed record files in this account.
@.@,fixed
UNDEFINED
This definition represents Undefined record length files only. Limit file selection to files whose record length is undefined. For example, list all undefined record length files in this account.
@.@,undefined
VARIABLE
This definition represents Variable record length files only. Limit file selection to variable record length files. For example, list all variable length files in this account.
@.@,variable

SINGLE PARAMETER Filter Definitions

The filters in this section only have one parameter, which must be included. It can either be "=ON", or "=OFF".
CCTL
This definition represents "Carriage Control". This filter lets you specify whether to look for files that were/were not written with carriage control. For example, list all fixed record length ASCII files, that were created without the carriage control characters in the current group:
@,fixed,ascii,cctl=off
CIR
This definition represents Include Circular files. This filter lets you specify whether or not to include CIR files. For example, list all circular files from the current group.
@.@,cir=on
MSG
This definition represents Include Message files. This filter lets you specify whether or not to include MSG file. For example, list all in this group except message files, and native mode relocatable libraries:
@,msg=off,code<>nmrl
RIO
This definition represents Include Message files. This filter lets you specify whether or not to include RIO file. For example, include all relative I/O files from the current group:
@,rio=on

BLAZE Commands

In addition to function keys and menu selections, BLAZE provides single-letter command (SLC) keys that are used to pop-up single-function windows. At this time there are 13 different single- letter commands. As with all BLAZE command entries, the SLCs are not case-sensitive.
SLCs are available when the BLAZE Tree or View screens are active. At other times, the function keys are used to specify selections.

BLAZE Objects

Most SLCs perform a given operation on an object. The object of the command varies, depending on which BLAZE window is active, where the cursor is located, and whether or not any file subsets are defined.
For instance, if the Account Structure window is active, the object of the SLC will be a fileset, an account, or a group. If the File List window is active, the object of the SLC will be the file specified by the cursor’s position. In other words, the file name that is highlighted by the cursor is implicitly selected whenever you invoke an SLC.

SLC Key Summary

Many of the SLC keys fall into logical groupings. In the summary that follows, commands are defined according to the type of operation that is invoked.
Table 5.1 SLC Key Summary
Task
Letter
Description
Defining Filesets
F
Fileset (define a new fileset)
M
MAGNET (select fileset based on contents of file)
Choosing Files
T
Tag files
U
Untag files
File Subset Management
S
Subset (create a new file subset)
X
eXpand (activate the previous file subset)
N
Next subset (activate the next file subset)
BLAZE Object Management Commands
C
Copy files
P
Purge files
R
Rename files
E
Execute MPE command
Z
Crunch file (Zap) (release wasted disk space)
File Finding Commands
/
Set up find parameters
>
Find next
<
Find previous
Help: the BLAZE Single Letter Command Key Summary
H
Help (pop-up command summary)

Defining Filesets

This section discusses various ways of specifying filesets.
F
The F command is used to specify a fileset. Using this SLC will cause a small single-line window to pop-up on top of the current window (see Figure 5.10). In this window you can define a new file specification using the syntax described earlier in the "File Specification Syntax" section. The maximum length of a fileset description is 78 characters. If necessary, use the cursor keys to edit the text.

NOTE Don’t forget, BLAZE will use your input exactly as it appears on the screen.



Figure 5.10 Specify Fileset
M
The M command pops up a window on top of the current display (see Figure 5.11). This window is titled "Words to search". The parameters entered here are passed programmatically to MAGNET in the System Manager’s Toolbox for file searches.
Inside this window are three search characteristic questions to answer. Each has a default that is initially displayed. User definable search characteristics are:

Case sensitive:
Enter "Y" for a case-sensitive search; enter "N" for a case-insensitive search.
All words must occur:
If you select "Y" for this entry, then all of the words you specify must be found in a file to be considered a match. By specifying "N" if any word from the list is found in any file, that file is included in the fileset.
Whole words:
Enter "Y" if words must match exactly. Enter "N" if the word can be part of another word.

Next, you can specify up to eight text strings (words). The total length of the eight text strings is limited to approximately 180 characters.
After entering all information press F6 (Accept) key to start the search. If the Account Structure window is active, then the object of this command will be determined by the location of the cursor (i.e., a fileset, account, or group will be searched). If the File List window is active, then the object of the search will be a single file, as specified by the cursor.


Figure 5.11 Word Search
Figure 5.11 illustrates how you can locate the files that use a few common intrinsics. Something like this might be handy when migration to a Spectrum machine and you need an easy way to locate the intrinsic calls requiring modification for compiling in native mode.

Choosing Files

This section describes the two SLCs that are used for selecting files: the Tag and Untag commands.
T
Selecting this command will result in files being tagged. Determining which files are tagged is easy since BLAZE marks each tagged file with the character curly right bracket (}). As with most SLCs, the object of the Tag command is determined by the active window. Entire file subsets, accounts and groups are tagged while the Account Structure window is active. Individual files are tagged when the File List window is active.
When the Account Structure window is active the following mass tagging is possible.
Warning: Tagging entire file subsets can take several minutes if a large number (i.e, thousands)
of files are specified.
Fileset Tagging
To tag all of the files in an entire file subset, move the cursor to the top line of the window. The text that will be highlighted will read "ACCT/GROUP". All of the files in all of the accounts and the groups displayed in this window will be tagged.
Press the letter "T" to initiate tagging.
Account Tagging
To tag all of the files in one account, use the arrow keys to move the cursor (highlight bar) to the name of the account that you want to tag.
Press the letter "T" to initiate tagging.
Group Tagging
To tag all of the files in a group, use the arrow keys to move the highlight bar to the name of the group that you want to tag.
Press the letter "T" to initiate tagging.
File Tagging
When the File List window is active file tagging is possible. Individual file tagging is accomplished by highlighting the file which you want to tag and then pressing the letter "T". The tag indicator (}) will be displayed just to the left of the filename to indicate that it has been tagged.
U
Selecting this command will result in tagged files being untagged. This command is used to undo Tag command actions. Functionally, it performs the opposite operation of the tag command. Untagging a file that was not previously tagged is meaningless and has no effect.
In terms of mass untagging operations the U tag command functions the same way that the Tag command functions. Please refer to the Tag command for details on untagging various levels of file subsets.
Untag acts like an "except" operator when it is combined with the Tag command for mass operations. Consider the situation where you want to tag all of files in an account except one or two files. The easiest way to accomplish this would be to “tag” the entire account and then switch to the File List window (use the F3 Window toggle key) to untag the files you want to exclude.

File Subset Management

This section describes the three commands that are used for file subset management.
A file subset is a group of files from the previously defined file subset. Initially, the only file subset defined is the fileset that was specified with the FILESET option of the "Settings.." submenu. To define a file subset, the T and U commands are used to select files which you want to place in a subset. in addition to these two commands, the M (MAGNET) command can be used to select files for tagging. As file subsets are defined, they become smaller and more focused on a particular characteristic. BLAZE allows up to nine file subsets to be defined.
S
The Subset command is used to create a new subset. The subset is created from the files that have been tagged. When the subset command S is issued, BLAZE assigns a subset number to the newly created file subset and updates the display screen with the new subset information. The subset command performs the same action regardless of which window is active.
Highlighting the top line (i.e., the ACCT/GROUP label) of the Account Structure window and pressing F4 (ZOOM IN) pops up the Profile screen. The Profile screen displays environment information about the BLAZE session, including a list of the currently-defined file subsets.
The initial state for all files in the new subset is "Untagged".
X
The X (expand) SLC switches from the active file subset to the previous file subset definition. Repeated use of X SLC results in restoring all previous file subsets until the original fileset is active again. In effect, X sequentially navigates through each of the file subsets, beginning with the last subset created and ending at the original fileset.

NOTE The status line will always indicate the number of the active file subset.

N
The N SLC is used to select the next file subset to become active. This command is only useful if the X SLC has been used. It navigates in forward sequence, ending at the last file subset created. Repeated use of the N SLC results in the highest numbered file subset being selected as the active file subset.

NOTE The status line displays the number of the active file subset.

BLAZE Object Management Commands

This section describes the five commands that work on BLAZE objects. Remember that the object of these commands will be determined by the active window and/or location of the cursor.
When the Account Structure window is active and the cursor is located on the top row of the window, selecting one of these commands will result in the entire fileset being processed. When the cursor is located on an account name, this command processes the entire account. When the cursor is located in a group name, this command processes the entire group. When the File List window is active then file which is highlighted by the cursor will be processed, even if it is not tagged.
C
This SLC is used to copy file subsets. Invoking the C SLC results in a pop-up window being displayed on top of the current window (see Figure 5.12). This window is titled "Copy Files", and contains two copy-related questions. Each question displays an initial default. If the default settings are not satisfactory you can edit them.
Press F6 (Accept) to initiate file copying.


Figure 5.12 Copy Files
P
This SLC is used to purge file subsets. Invoking the P SLC results in a pop-up window being displayed on top of the current window (see Figure 5.13). This window is titled "Purge Files". By default you will need to confirm each purge operation. If you do not want to confirm each purge, then answer the confirm question with an "N".
Press F6 (Accept) to initiate file purging.


Figure 5.13 Purge Files
R
This SLC is used to rename file subsets. Pressing the R SLC results in a pop-up window being displayed in front of the current window (see Figure 5.14). This window is titled "Rename Files". By default the rename command will NOT purge files that exist with the same target name. If you want BLAZE to purge an existing file with the same name, answer "Y" to the "Purge existing destinations" question. Otherwise, files with existing names will not be renamed.
Press F6 (Accept) to initiate file renaming.


Figure 5.14 Rename Files
E
This SLC is used to execute an MPE command against a fileset. Invoking the E SLC results in a pop-up window being displayed on top of the current window (see Figure 5.15). This window is titled "Execute MPE command". Executable MPE commands can be any valid MPE command or a UDC.
This command is most useful when you have to repeat the same basic operation on a number of files. An example of this would be generating hard copies of a number of selected files without having to issue a PRINT command for each file. The PRINT command can be issued once using the BLAZE EXECUTE command to print all of the files listed in the selected subset. The default output destination for the PRINT command is the terminal. A file equation to redirect printed output to the line printer can be issued from within BLAZE using the MPE command option in the main menu. The file equation used for this example was FILE PRN;DEV=LP.


Figure 5.15 Execute MPE command
Notice that this example uses a file subset (see the label on the upper right corner of the screen, Display Subset(1)).
There are four environment variables that BLAZE initializes before each invocation of the specified MPE command. These are: BLAZE_FILE, BLAZE_NAME, BLAZE_GROUP, BLAZE_ACCOUNT. They are initialized as follows:

BLAZE_FILE
= fully qualified filename
BLAZE_NAME
= only the MPE filename
BLAZE_GROUP
= only the MPE group name
BLAZE_ACCOUNT
= only the MPE account name

When you enter the MPE command that you want executed, simply substitute the appropriate environment variable name where you would have normally entered filename information. Remember to de-reference the variables by preceding each variable name with the de-reference character (!). For example, using the COBOL compiler, compile each file into a file with the same name in the .OBJ-group:
:cob74xl!BLAZE_NAME,!BLAZE_NAME.OBJ,$null
Press F6 (ACCEPT) to initiate repeated execution of this command.

NOTE When the File List window is active, only one file will be processed.

Z
The Crunch (Zap) SLC is used to recover wasted disk space. Wasted disk space occurs because of the disk allocation method that MPE/iX uses. Disk space is requested in sectors, however MPE/iX typically does not allocate sectors. rather, MPE/iX allocates disk space in multiple sector blocks. The number of sectors in a block is dependent on many variables. So, unless you happen to create a file whose size is a multiple of the block allocation size, you will end up with wasted disk space.
Invoking the Z SLC results in a pop-up window being displayed on top of the current window (see Figure 5.16). This window is titled "Crunch Files". By default you will need to confirm each crunch operation. If you do not want to confirm each crunch, then answer the confirm question with an "N".
Press F6 (Accept) to initiate file crunching.


Figure 5.16 Crunch Files
It is not uncommon for crunching to recover thousands of sectors of disk space.

File Finding Commands

The SLCs in this section are used for locating files within the active fileset. Anything in the File List window can be the target of a find pattern. Often, there will be hundreds of files in a fileset. Locating a particular file in a fileset this large can be a real chore. These commands speed up the file locating process. Searching takes place whenever a find text (>) command or find previous (<) command is entered. If found, the File List window is updated so that the "located" file is highlighted.

NOTE Searching can only take place when the File List window is active.

/
This SLC sets up a search string for the Find commands. Using this SLC will cause a small single line window pop-up on the top of the current window on the top of the display screen (see Figure 5.18). In this window, enter a pattern to search for (including embedded spaces if necessary). Character upshifting is automatic. Examples include: "myfile, 40w fb,nmobj."
> | <
Use ">" to begin searching "downward" from the current location in the File List window. Likewise, use "<" to begin searching "upward" from the current location. If no pattern is defined, BLAZE will issue a single beep to indicate the error. The "/" command must be used before directional searches become available.


Figure 5.17 FIND Command

Help, BLAZE Single Letter Command Key Summary

Selecting this SLC displays a pop-up window that lists all of the single-letter command keys.


Figure 5.18 Single Letter Command Keys

BLAZE Function Keys

Common function keys include Help, Print, Refresh, Exit, and so forth. This section discusses function key operations that are specific to BLAZE.
Depending on which screen is active, some or all of the function keys will be available for you to use. The actual function performed by these keys will vary slightly depending on the context. For example, the CANCEL FUNCTION key is used to return from the Help subsystem.
At other times the function keys are used for navigating through BLAZE windows, traversing the fileset tree, or selecting options based on the task at hand.

WINDOW TOGGLE

This function is not always available. When it is available it is accessed through the F3 function key. This function is used to switch between the various BLAZE windows.
When the Tree screen is active, F3 is used to toggle between the Account Structure window and the File List window. When the View screen is active, F3 is used to toggle between the Account Structure window, the File List window, and the File Content window.

ZOOM

This function is not always available. When ZOOM is available it is accessed through the F4 function key. ZOOM provides two functions: ZOOM IN and ZOOM OUT. The F8 function key is used to ZOOM OUT.
While ZOOM functions are available on most BLAZE screens, the function performed is highly context-sensitive. Logically, ZOOM OUT restores your display to its prior-ZOOM IN state.
In its most common role, ZOOM IN simply enlarges the current window to use the entire display. Other times, using ZOOM IN can redefine function keys or call up other BLAZE menus. If the Tree or View screen is active, zooming in is used to provide more detailed information about specified object. For example, zooming in when the File Content window is active expands the display. Several display formats are accessed through the function keys.

F4
Hex & Ascii (Hexadecimal & Ascii combination)
F5
Hex Display (Hexadecimal only)
F6
Ascii Display (Ascii only)
F7
Ascii Filter
F8
Zoom Out

Example: Zooming in when the Files List window is active will provide general information about the file:

F4
List Security
F5
Listf -1
F6
List File
F8
Zoom Out

Example: Zooming in when the Account Structure window is active will result in 1 of 3 possible displays depending on where the cursor was positioned in that window:
If the ACCT/GROUP row is selected, zooming in will call up the Profile screen display. If an Account is selected, zooming in provides the following information through the function keys:

F4
Listacct
F5
Report
F8
Zoom Out

If a Group is selected, zooming in provides the following information through the function keys:

F4
Listgrp (List Group)
F5
Listf,2
F6
Listf, -2
F8
Zoom Out



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